ECONOMICS

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2017. Rentier-financier capitalism is in economic crisis since 2008 and in political crisis since 2016. The secular stagnation issue was brought again to the fore, in so far as capitalism turned again liberal (instead of developmental) since 1980. But it is more likely that rich countries will face low growth, financial instability, and increasing inequality, unless they are able to criticize economic liberalism. (Paper for Berlin conference)

2007. Trade cannot be de-linked from finance because the exchange rate represents a major intersection between the two field. Yet, the exchange rate is forgotten in international trade and in economic growth courses, and in trade negotiations at WTO. Countries that have reserve currencies abhor taking on the exchange rate (Intervention at UNCTAD seminar)

1978. Multinational entreprises involve a new form of dependency, requiring carefull scrutiny. Brazil does not need so much of capital as it is said. The Brazilian bourgeoisie is associated to multinationals, but the state's technobureaucracy is not, and may be a source of national autonomy. (Paper: Encontros com a Civilização Brasileira)*