Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira
Análise Econômica, Porto Alegre, 31 (59): 7-19, 2013.

For Ignácio Rangel economic development is an intrinsically contradictory movement through which technological innovation, whose dynamics explains the long cycle, is permanently in conflict with the existing capitals that it depreciates. Development in Brazil is not just defined by the opposition between the capitalist and the pre-capitalist sector; there is also an external duality that does not just express the relation between its stages of economic growth and the development of the world economy, but also tells us how its modern and its backward sector change at each stage. The duality has a double character: through the coexistence of relations of productions that correspond to two sequential historical phases, and through the existence, in the domestic and in the external “pole” of such duality, a relation of dependency toward the more advanced societies.